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Reciprocal Agreement Between Countries

The logical extension of reciprocity is the development of a comprehensive customs union (e.g. B of the European Union) which, through progressive reciprocal concessions, eliminates all customs duties and other restrictions between the participating countries. The bilateral social security agreement with Chile started on 1 June 2015.This guide has been updated to add Chile to the list of non-EEA countries that have concluded an agreement with the United Kingdom. To preview our results, we find that the evidence reported varies according to the specifications. However, according to our preferred specification, the PPML estimate with the dependent variables in the export shares and the attribution of a correlation in the duration of the error in all possible dimensions of the clusters, only mutual agreements had a positive impact on trade flows between developed and developing countries throughout the sampling period and only if the exporter is the developing country. For data up to 2008, the NRPTA has had positive effects on exports from beneficiary countries that have disappeared in recent years. Finally, for exports from industrialized countries to beneficiary countries, our preferred specification does not provide any evidence of a significant effect. The reference specifications contain only one dummy for all preferential (mutual) agreements (PTAs). To study the problems addressed in this paper, we disagagulate the PTA dummy variable in three different ways, interacting the PTA dummy with mannequins, in order to determine whether or not the exporter and/or importing countries are beneficiaries of non-emancipated preferential trade agreements. First, this mannequin is divided into two mannequins, depending on whether the exporter is a beneficiary country (PTAXben) or a developed country (PTAXdev).

Secondly, from the importer`s point of view, we have divided the ZEP dummy into two parts (designated by PTAMben and PTAMdev). Finally, and most importantly, we cut the PTA dummy into four mannequins, taking into account the group to which each trading partner of the pair belongs: developed exporter and importer (PTAXbenMdev), developed exporter and beneficiary importer (PTAXdevMben), profitable exporter and importer (PTAXbenMben) and developed exporter and importer (PTAXXdevmdev). For clarity, we consider the first of these models as an example. PTAXbenMdev is a decoy that is a unit when country i is a beneficiary country of a non-reciprocal trade agreement and country j is a developed country and they share adherence to a reciprocal and otherwise zero preferential trade agreement. By comparing the estimated coefficient for this variable to the coefficient obtained for NRPTAXbenMdev, we can test whether reciprocal or non-reciprocal trade agreements were the most appropriate to promote exports from developing countries. Similarly, we can compare the export performance of industrialized countries that participate in reciprocal (PTAXdevMben) and non-reciprocal (NRPTAXdevMben) trade agreements with beneficiary countries. . . .